Most studies have examined paternal preconception occupational exposures and their effect on the risk of birth defects and childhood cancer. However few have examined the effects of low-level general population exposure to environmental toxicants. More research is needed to provide useful advice to couples planning pregnancy.
In those who opt for IVF immediately, the cumulative pregnancy rates seem comparable but the pregnancies occurred earlier.
Pregnancy and live birth rates are higher in men who undergo microsurgical vasectomy reversal with the same female partner. These outcomes may be related to a shorter interval from vasectomy.